The “Journal of Science, Humanities and Arts – JOSHA” has been initiated to create a novel internet platform to access the broad diversity of important discoveries and creativity in the fields of Science, Humanities and Arts. Read more ...

Professor Dr. Günter Hager in Memoriam

Boris Paal, Uwe Blaurock, Florian Asche

Affiliation: Faculty of Law, Albert-Ludwigs University of Freiburg

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.1.273

In memoriam Günter Hager: Obituary speeches in German by his former colleagues and friends honouring Günter Hager's life, professional activities, and personality on February 28, 2017. [Article in German] Prof. Dr. Boris Paal, M.Jur. (Oxford) is Dean of the Faculty of Law of the Albert-Ludwigs University Freiburg. He is Director of the Institute for Media and Information Law, Dept. I: Civil and Economic Law, Media and Information Law, at the Albert-Ludwigs University of Freiburg. Professor Dr. Uwe Blaurock has been a full professor at the Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg since 1995 , where he was Director of the Institute of Economic Law from 1995 to 2011. From 2002 to 2004 he was Dean of the Faculty of Law. In 2011 he became Professor emeritus. Since 1999 he has been a concurrent professor at Nanjing University, and since 2001 he has been President of the German-Chinese Law Association. Dr. iur.


Günter Hager 1943-2017

Roland Mertelsmann

Affiliation: Albert-Ludwigs Universität, Freiburg

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.1.272

On 19 February 2017, Prof. Dr. Günter Hager, member of the JOSHA Editorial Board for the Section "Philosophy, Ethics and Law", died at the age of 73 years. He contributed decisively to the success of JOSHA in the conception of our journal, the content design, and development, as well as his own important contributions. Until his retirement in 2011, he was a professor of civil law with a focus on International Private Law. After his retirement, Günter Hager increasingly dealt with questions of ethics and the environment and nature conservation, publishing many of his great works in JOSHA. With him, we lost not only a great legal scholar and an important editor of JOSHA but also a wonderful friend who was broadly interested in literature and music and whose narratives were, as it were, creative, humorous, and linguistically refined. One of his favorite aphorisms from his inexhaustible fund of quotations was "What is to be dismissed this minute, no eternity will return.


Enough. Concerning me. - Summer School 2017 in Wittenberg

Evangelisches Studienwerk e.V. I ohner Straße 25 58239 Schwerte

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.1.271

Enough. Concerning me. Different facets of one statement – encouraging and setting limits at the same ime. We want to arouse curiosity, stimulate new approaches and think out the future. At the Summer School 2017 in Wittenberg, in the middle of the Reformation anniversary, we want to broaden our horizons and get personal: letting ourselves be concerned. On over 100 pages we have collected details on the seminars, workshops and events for you. They focus on the general topic – and are interdisciplinary, outward-looking and interreligious. You can see it from the structure of this booklet: just as the German and English appear side by side, in the Reformation Summer many educational experts will complement and challenge one another with international perspectives in over 30 seminars. Their individual styles are represented in the seminar descriptions. The general topic arose from some hard thinking by undergraduates and doctoral students exactly a year ago.


Ethnic Identity from a Macro-Sociological Perspective: Second-generation Iranian “immigrants”

Fereshteh F. Ahmadi

Affiliation: Professor in Sociology, University of Gävle

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.1.266

A feeling of chosenness can result in isolation from other nations and ethnic groups. As it seems, such a feeling of ethnic chosenness may have led to a tendency toward ethnocentrism and in some extreme cases, towards racism found among some Iranians (30%-40% according to the world value survey). Such an ethnocentrism may have negative effects on the identity construction of young people, particularly those outside Iran. In the present article, based on studies conducted among Iranian-Swedish and Iranian-American young people, I will try to shed light on this problem. Key words: Racism, Iranians, Second-generation “immigrants”, Ethnocentrism, National identity, Ethnic identity


"Missed encounters" by Gottfried Schramm

Stephan Seiler

Affiliation: JOSHA

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.1.267

Missed encounters have often been described. Queen Elizabeth of England did not visit her captive rival in the garden of Fotheringhay Castle in 1587. Nor did the imperial commander Albrecht von Wallenstein receive a Swedish subcontractor in the camp of Pilsen in 1634. But it could have happened. This series of eight described encounters has taken shape in leisure hours, which a retired Freiburg historian now has more extensively than before. The essays are not about fiction, but about history, which has really happened. Only one should read between the lines because, unfortunately, the encounters did not take place in reality. The eight "missed encounters" published by the Freiburg-based historian Prof. Dr. em. Gottfried Schramm will appear in the next few weeks as a series in the Journal of Science, Humanities, and Arts. In the first episode, the Tsarina Katharina II is visited by an anonymous guest. Will a past happiness avert an approaching mischief? [Article in German]


Short Stories Series: "Prom Night"

Zazie-Charlotte Pfeiffer

Affiliation: Albert-Ludwigs-Univerity Freiburg

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.1.265

This article is the first of a series of short stories by the young author Zazie-Charlotte Pfeiffer, who received the "Jean-Paul" Award in 2013 and the "Tom Sawyer" Award in 2012 for her work. SUMMARY: Marco has always been a dreamer and the creator of his own little world. Tonight he is dreaming and reflecting about past and future, lets his gazes fly over a sleeping city and searches for roots that he didn’t even know he lost. A glimpse of future possibilities, a moment of breath in silence and the reflections of a stranger on his own life. INSTITUTION: Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany.


Complexity of Iterative Model - Architectural Integrated Design as an Evolutive Transdisciplinary Strategy. Case Study: A City Without a River

Bujar Q. Bajçinovci, Florina Jerliu

Affiliation: University of Prishtina, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Kosovo

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.1.264

Contemporary challenges should encourage new explorations in order to administer new urban solutions; thus, assuring better and higher quality of life. The meaning of transdisciplinary design consists of different professions closely related to the architectural design targeting for better and qualitative design solutions, which with new findings exceed the conventional and traditional disciplinary barriers. This study investigated the downtown of Prishtina city focussing on urban design issues, pollution, ecology, and sustainable urban design. The research method consists of empirical observation through wide centre zone with an accent to the urban water management plan as a contemporary reflection to the past decisions of Prishtina municipality.


Prom night

Zazie-Charlotte Pfeiffer

ENGLISH: Marco has always been a dreamer and the creator of his own little world. Tonight he is dreaming and reflecting about past and future, lets his gazes fly over a sleeping city and searches for roots that he didn’t even know he lost. A glimpse of future possibilities, a moment of breath in silence and the reflections of a stranger on his own life. Short story by young author Zazie-Charlotte Pfeiffer, who received the "Jean-Paul“ Award in 2013 and the "Tom Sawyer" Award in 2012 for her short stories. GERMAN: Marco ist schon immer ein Träumer und Erschaffer seiner eigenen kleinen Welt gewesen. In dieser Nacht träumt und reflektiert er über Vergangenheit und Zukunft, lässt seine Blicke über die schlafende Stadt streifen und sucht nach Wurzeln, von denen er nicht einmal wusste, dass er sie verloren hatte. Ein Augenblick der Zukunftsmöglichkeiten, ein Moment des Atems in der Stille und die Reflektion eines Fremden über sein eigenes Leben.


Architectural Reflection on Italo Calvino’s Invisible Cities

Bard Bajçinovci, Kaltrina Thaçi, Bujar Q. Bajçinovci

Affiliation: University of Prishtina, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Kosovo

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.1.261

Cities actually endure a considerable lack of space for much needed urban development. Moreover, nowadays contemporary architectural challenges are extensive and complex social issues. Furthermore, present challenges represent fundamental city necessities or a broad of society demands, which we must take into consideration. Hence, we must make the necessary preparations for direct urban actions on fulfilling those issues from the best possible known urban strategies. Urban planning is a design process with a primary course to protect the environment, to manage urban infrastructure as a whole integrated system, and deliver the most appropriate style for living. In relation to sustainability and ecology, a qualitative urban design can significantly improve condition, and quality of life of urbanites. This study, has conceptually researched a design model of high-rise structures with its proportions mainly focussing on future urban planning structures.


Ion Channels: Their Discovery and their Role in Pharmacology and Biomedicine

Erwin Neher

Affiliation: Max-Planck Institute for biophysical Chemistry, Göttingen

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.1.260

The concept of bioelectricity emerged in the late 18th century, based on the experiments of Galvani and Volta. Sixty years ago Hodgkin and Huxley showed that the nerve impulse is a result of permeability changes of the nerve membrane. This provoked the question of what the molecular mechanisms of such permeability changes might be. In 1976, Bert Sakmann and myself were able to show that the so-called ion channels –proteins that gate ion fluxes across membranes- mediate these responses. Research over the last 40 years has shown that ion channels are not only present in electrically excitable cells, such as in nerves and muscles, but also in basically all cell types of our body, mediating a variety of physiological functions. We now know that they are prime drug targets and that dysfunction of ion channels underlies a variety of diseases.