TRANSCEND a new Translational Medicine hub at the east edge of European Union.

Eugen Carasevici

DOI: 10.17160/josha.5.1.376

Languages: English

The functional concept of TRANSCEND is equally in favor of independent continuation and subsistence of each unit through dedicated projects and financial capital as well as comprehensive projects that fit into place all units of the center for the design of a biomarker with diagnostic value and ultimately linked to the application of a specific and tailored therapy. Pairing Diagnostics with Therapeutics is currently framed under the notion of theranostic. TRANSCEND will promote this convention implying that drugs must be paired with diagnostic biomarkers to enable the right drug to be selected for the right patient at the right time. Central to the integration in such a scheme, which aspire to diagnose, deliver targeted therapy and monitor the response to therapy, is the growth of units of proteomics, bioinformatics and isotopic tracer production for developing a translational biomarker repertoire and a functionally interpretable systems medicine.


Somatic mutation or epigenetic modification - Somatische Mutation oder epigenetische Modifikation

Horst Kress

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.6.370

Languages: German

In the first essay on the subject of the „Renaissance of Lamarckism“ (JOSHA Vol. 3, Issue 4), we explored the historical roots of this term. We saw that Lamarck's (1744-1829) concept ofabout the inheritance of characteristics acquired during an individual`s life through active adaptation was initially even accepted by Darwin. However, since neither the scientific nor the social/political experiment could validate this thesis, it is to be understood that until the 20th century Lamarck's ideas did not gain a foothold in the advancing natural sciences and were more or less pushed out of consciousness, In order to be able to come closer to the topic of inheritance of acquired characteristics, we will first deal with the development of the elucidation of the structure and function of the chromosomes in the present essay.


Photography and the Visual Brain

Chiara Salabé

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.6.369

Languages: English

Photography has the aim to provide knowledge about the world we live in seizing from the continually changing information one unique moment which expresses the reality (of the artist). Also the brain must discount a great deal of the information which is not essential to its aim of representing the true character of objects. OBJECTIVE: This essay describes the pathways of the brain preceding a camera shot, from the external sensory stimulus, to the elaboration in the neocortex, and finally to the response in the motor action represented by the “click”. The focus is on the visual brain; we will see how it is characterized by a set of parallel processing of perceptual stimuli as well as temporal hierarchical awareness of perception. We will also briefly describe how the elaboration of the external stimulus is transferred into motor action, which in the case of photography is able to capture the essential feature of a specific reality in a fraction of a second.


Urinary Tract Infection As A Predictor Of Poor Prognosis In Pediatric Patients With Severe Febrile Neutropenia Related To Chemotherapy

Maria Paula Gonzalez Galvis, Luis Alfonso Díaz-Martínez et al.

Affiliation: Departamento de Pediatría, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad Industrial de Santander. Bucaramanga, Colombia

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.5.352

Languages: Spanish, Castilian

The diminished inflammatory response in patients with febrile neutropenia secondary to chemotherapy makes it hard to discard a urinary tract infection based solely on the physical evaluation of the patient and basic urine laboratory tests. This could lead to false negative results with serious consequences to the patients. Objective: To define if the urinary tract infection is a high-risk predictor of severe complications in the pediatric patient with febrile neutropenia-related with chemotherapy and to establish the diagnostic significance of normal urine sediment in the initial study. Methods: A Cross-sectional study of diagnostic technology. We included children with ages from 2 to 18 years old, with severe febrile neutropenia related to chemotherapy, we compared patients with and without urinary tract infection and evaluated poor prognosis outcomes and analyzed the diagnostic efficiency of urinalysis.


Between the Lines: The Language and Art of Death

Stephanie H. Lim, Jeremiah de Leon

Affiliation: Department of Medical Oncology, Macarthur Cancer Therapy Centre

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.3.311

Languages: English

This short paper reflects on the attitudes that modern society has towards death, which affect and form the language that we use to describe death. The key domains of concern to the dying are described, as well as the patterns of social interactions. It explores how the visual arts can offer an alternate and cathartic form of communication of death, as shown by the patient experience with cancer. Ultimately, it encourages us to view medicine as an art, and also art as medicine.


Derivation of a Shortened Research Instrument for Measuring Alcohol and Other Drug (AOD) Attitudes in a Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) Training Program

Arvind Venkat, Arnie Aldridge, Shannon Kearney, John Radack et al.

Affiliation: Program Evaluation and Research Unit, School of Pharmacy, University of Pittsburgh

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.2.290

Languages: English

The Alcohol and Alcohol Problems Perception Questionnaire (AAPPQ) is a survey for evaluating the attitudes of clinicians towards patients with alcohol use disorders. A locally-developed research instrument for a Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) training program, the Survey of Attitudes and Perceptions, incorporates the AAPPQ to measure changes in the attitudes of healthcare professionals pre- and post-training. To ease the burden of the research instrument, a derivation study was undertaken using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to derive fewer statements from each factor of the AAPPQ. The original 30-statement AAPPQ was reduced to 13 statements, representing the six factors of the AAPPQ and showing qualities of coherence, non-redundancy, and reliability. The 13 corresponding Drug and Drug Problems Perceptions Questionnaire were also included in the revised SAP instrument.


Derivation of a Shortened Research Instrument for Measuring Alcohol and Other Drug (AOD) Attitudes in a Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) Training Program

Arvind Venkat, Arnie Aldridge, Shannon Kearney, John Radack et al.

Affiliation: University of Pittsburgh, School of Pharmacy, Program Evaluation and Research Unit

Languages: English

The Alcohol and Alcohol Problems Perception Questionnaire (AAPPQ) is a survey for evaluating the attitudes of clinicians towards patients with alcohol use disorders. A locally-developed research instrument for a Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) training program, the Survey of Attitudes and Perceptions, incorporates the AAPPQ to measure changes in the attitudes of healthcare professionals pre- and post-training. To ease the burden of the research instrument, a derivation study was undertaken using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to derive fewer statements from each factor of the AAPPQ. The original 30-statement AAPPQ was reduced to 13 statements, representing the six factors of the AAPPQ and showing qualities of coherence, non-redundancy, and reliability. The 13 corresponding Drug and Drug Problems Perceptions Questionnaire were also included in the revised SAP instrument.


Safeguarding Academic Freedom in the 'Masterplan Medical Studies 2020' (Sicherung der Lehrfreiheit im „Masterplan Medizinstudium 2020“)

Frank Wertheimer

Affiliation: Krauss Law, Lahr, Germany

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.2.283

Languages: German

Recently, the German government has planned to reform the medical school education system. Under the heading “masterplan medical education 2020” a commission composed of science and health ministers has been developing proposals for practical relevance and reinforcing the proportion of general medicine. Specifically, it is planned to introduce a mandatory rotation of general medicine in the practical year of medical school, which will have to be performed by a general practitioner accredited by the public health insurance. To this end, general practitioners are thought to participate in teaching medical students during the practical year on a voluntary basis. Furthermore, general medicine is supposed to become a mandatory part of the final oral and practical state exam which takes place after the practical year.


Ion Channels: Their Discovery and their Role in Pharmacology and Biomedicine

Erwin Neher

Affiliation: Max-Planck Institute for biophysical Chemistry, Göttingen

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.1.260

Languages: English

The concept of bioelectricity emerged in the late 18th century, based on the experiments of Galvani and Volta. Sixty years ago Hodgkin and Huxley showed that the nerve impulse is a result of permeability changes of the nerve membrane. This provoked the question of what the molecular mechanisms of such permeability changes might be. In 1976, Bert Sakmann and myself were able to show that the so-called ion channels –proteins that gate ion fluxes across membranes- mediate these responses. Research over the last 40 years has shown that ion channels are not only present in electrically excitable cells, such as in nerves and muscles, but also in basically all cell types of our body, mediating a variety of physiological functions. We now know that they are prime drug targets and that dysfunction of ion channels underlies a variety of diseases.


Understanding and Controlling Cancer: The Hallmark Concept Revisited – Chance, Evolution and Entropy

Jenny Groten, Christoph Borner, Roland Mertelsmann

Affiliation: Albert-Ludwigs Universität, Freiburg

DOI: 10.17160/josha.3.7.252

Languages: English

The overall aim of this investigation was to identify the fundamental phenotypic traits of a cancer cell to develop an “in silico” simulation model and, vice versa redefine the identified characteristics via the established simulation model. Thus, the focus lay on visualization and interactivity of the simulation. To achieve this aim, we addressed the following objectives. In the present paper, the essential “Hallmarks of Cancer” have been identified, based on a literature review. The term “Hallmarks of Cancer” has thereby been adopted from Hanahan and Weinberg (Hanahan & Weinberg 2000; Hanahan & Weinberg 2011) and defines the most fundamental phenotypic characteristics of cancer cells, which are assumed to distinguish the latter from normal cells.