Urinary Tract Infection As A Predictor Of Poor Prognosis In Pediatric Patients With Severe Febrile Neutropenia Related To Chemotherapy

Maria Paula Gonzalez Galvis, Luis Alfonso Díaz-Martínez et al.

Affiliation: Departamento de Pediatría, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad Industrial de Santander. Bucaramanga, Colombia

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.5.352

Languages: Spanish, Castilian

The diminished inflammatory response in patients with febrile neutropenia secondary to chemotherapy makes it hard to discard a urinary tract infection based solely on the physical evaluation of the patient and basic urine laboratory tests. This could lead to false negative results with serious consequences to the patients. Objective: To define if the urinary tract infection is a high-risk predictor of severe complications in the pediatric patient with febrile neutropenia-related with chemotherapy and to establish the diagnostic significance of normal urine sediment in the initial study. Methods: A Cross-sectional study of diagnostic technology. We included children with ages from 2 to 18 years old, with severe febrile neutropenia related to chemotherapy, we compared patients with and without urinary tract infection and evaluated poor prognosis outcomes and analyzed the diagnostic efficiency of urinalysis.


Between the Lines: The Language and Art of Death

Stephanie H. Lim, Jeremiah de Leon

Affiliation: Department of Medical Oncology, Macarthur Cancer Therapy Centre

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.3.311

Languages: English

This short paper reflects on the attitudes that modern society has towards death, which affect and form the language that we use to describe death. The key domains of concern to the dying are described, as well as the patterns of social interactions. It explores how the visual arts can offer an alternate and cathartic form of communication of death, as shown by the patient experience with cancer. Ultimately, it encourages us to view medicine as an art, and also art as medicine.


Derivation of a Shortened Research Instrument for Measuring Alcohol and Other Drug (AOD) Attitudes in a Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) Training Program

Arvind Venkat, Arnie Aldridge, Shannon Kearney, John Radack et al.

Affiliation: Program Evaluation and Research Unit, School of Pharmacy, University of Pittsburgh

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.2.290

Languages: English

The Alcohol and Alcohol Problems Perception Questionnaire (AAPPQ) is a survey for evaluating the attitudes of clinicians towards patients with alcohol use disorders. A locally-developed research instrument for a Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) training program, the Survey of Attitudes and Perceptions, incorporates the AAPPQ to measure changes in the attitudes of healthcare professionals pre- and post-training. To ease the burden of the research instrument, a derivation study was undertaken using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to derive fewer statements from each factor of the AAPPQ. The original 30-statement AAPPQ was reduced to 13 statements, representing the six factors of the AAPPQ and showing qualities of coherence, non-redundancy, and reliability. The 13 corresponding Drug and Drug Problems Perceptions Questionnaire were also included in the revised SAP instrument.


Derivation of a Shortened Research Instrument for Measuring Alcohol and Other Drug (AOD) Attitudes in a Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) Training Program

Arvind Venkat, Arnie Aldridge, Shannon Kearney, John Radack et al.

Affiliation: University of Pittsburgh, School of Pharmacy, Program Evaluation and Research Unit

Languages: English

The Alcohol and Alcohol Problems Perception Questionnaire (AAPPQ) is a survey for evaluating the attitudes of clinicians towards patients with alcohol use disorders. A locally-developed research instrument for a Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) training program, the Survey of Attitudes and Perceptions, incorporates the AAPPQ to measure changes in the attitudes of healthcare professionals pre- and post-training. To ease the burden of the research instrument, a derivation study was undertaken using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to derive fewer statements from each factor of the AAPPQ. The original 30-statement AAPPQ was reduced to 13 statements, representing the six factors of the AAPPQ and showing qualities of coherence, non-redundancy, and reliability. The 13 corresponding Drug and Drug Problems Perceptions Questionnaire were also included in the revised SAP instrument.


Safeguarding Academic Freedom in the 'Masterplan Medical Studies 2020' (Sicherung der Lehrfreiheit im „Masterplan Medizinstudium 2020“)

Frank Wertheimer

Affiliation: Krauss Law, Lahr, Germany

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.2.283

Languages: German

Recently, the German government has planned to reform the medical school education system. Under the heading “masterplan medical education 2020” a commission composed of science and health ministers has been developing proposals for practical relevance and reinforcing the proportion of general medicine. Specifically, it is planned to introduce a mandatory rotation of general medicine in the practical year of medical school, which will have to be performed by a general practitioner accredited by the public health insurance. To this end, general practitioners are thought to participate in teaching medical students during the practical year on a voluntary basis. Furthermore, general medicine is supposed to become a mandatory part of the final oral and practical state exam which takes place after the practical year.


Ion Channels: Their Discovery and their Role in Pharmacology and Biomedicine

Erwin Neher

Affiliation: Max-Planck Institute for biophysical Chemistry, Göttingen

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.1.260

Languages: English

The concept of bioelectricity emerged in the late 18th century, based on the experiments of Galvani and Volta. Sixty years ago Hodgkin and Huxley showed that the nerve impulse is a result of permeability changes of the nerve membrane. This provoked the question of what the molecular mechanisms of such permeability changes might be. In 1976, Bert Sakmann and myself were able to show that the so-called ion channels –proteins that gate ion fluxes across membranes- mediate these responses. Research over the last 40 years has shown that ion channels are not only present in electrically excitable cells, such as in nerves and muscles, but also in basically all cell types of our body, mediating a variety of physiological functions. We now know that they are prime drug targets and that dysfunction of ion channels underlies a variety of diseases.


Understanding and Controlling Cancer: The Hallmark Concept Revisited – Chance, Evolution and Entropy

Jenny Groten, Christoph Borner, Roland Mertelsmann

Affiliation: Albert-Ludwigs Universität, Freiburg

DOI: 10.17160/josha.3.7.252

Languages: English

The overall aim of this investigation was to identify the fundamental phenotypic traits of a cancer cell to develop an “in silico” simulation model and, vice versa redefine the identified characteristics via the established simulation model. Thus, the focus lay on visualization and interactivity of the simulation. To achieve this aim, we addressed the following objectives. In the present paper, the essential “Hallmarks of Cancer” have been identified, based on a literature review. The term “Hallmarks of Cancer” has thereby been adopted from Hanahan and Weinberg (Hanahan & Weinberg 2000; Hanahan & Weinberg 2011) and defines the most fundamental phenotypic characteristics of cancer cells, which are assumed to distinguish the latter from normal cells.


Understanding Cancer by Whole Genome Studies

Christof von Kalle

DOI: 10.17160/josha.3.6.248

Languages: English

The National Center for Tumor Diseases – NCT Heidelberg was founded as an exceptional alliance between the German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg University Hospital (UKL-HD), the Heidelberg Medical Faculty, and German Cancer Aid (Deutsche Krebshilfe). The NCT MASTER project is situated at the interface of cancer genomics and clinical oncology to provide comprehensive molecular profiling to selected patients with unmet medical need, and to evaluate the utility of such an approach for informing choices regarding targeted therapy based on the molecular characteristics of the individual cancer. This multidisciplinary initiative has implemented a standardized workflow for patient selection, sample processing, molecular and bioinformatic analysis, technical validation of individual findings, and reporting of results through a dedicated molecular tumor board.


The 1971 War on Cancer Revisited

Roland Mertelsmann

Affiliation: Albert-Ludwigs Universität, Freiburg

DOI: 10.17160/josha.3.6.245

Languages: English

Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide. President Roosevelt first established the National Cancer Institute and, later, President Nixon signed into law the National Cancer Act of 1971 to make the “Conquest of Cancer […] a national crusade”, declaring the “War on Cancer.” The worldwide research efforts focusing on the molecular and cellular biology and clinical spectrum of cancer have led to a better understanding of cancer as an acquired genetic disease, as well as to the importance of evolutionary processes in carcinogenesis and the clinical course of cancer. Based on these insights, novel therapeutic concepts have been developed and are already significantly improving the outlook for patients with cancer. PICTURE: Ludwig Köhler, Sculptures.


III International Congress on Translational Medicine - Buenos Aires, Argentina, Nov 21-22, 2016

Christoph Borner, Cristina Arranz

Affiliation: Dean Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry , University of Buenos Aires

DOI: 10.17160/josha.3.5.237

Languages: English

The School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry of the University of Buenos Aires hosts the third International Congress on Translational Medicine on November 21st and 22nd, under the auspices of the German Embassy in Buenos Aires and the Asociacion de Universidades Grupo Montevideo. The International Congress will be held in the context of the International Master Program in Biomedical Sciences (IMBS) Cooperation, a German-Argentinean Study Program from the Universities of Freiburg and Buenos Aires which is currently being extended to the University of Montevideo, Uruguay. The Master Program was launched in 2008 and has already paved the way for many graduates who joined academic and professional careers. A broad range of topics in the fields of Molecular Biology and Medicine as well as Microsystems and Bioethics will be covered by the two-day Congress. Moreover, Prof. Dr.