The “Journal of Science, Humanities and Arts – JOSHA” has been initiated to create a novel internet platform to access the broad diversity of important discoveries and creativity in the fields of Science, Humanities and Arts. Read more ...

The Law or: The affliction (Das Gesetz oder: Die Heimsuchung)

Hans-Joachim Behrendt

Affiliation: Criminal Law Department, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Germany

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.2.291

Languages: German

The article follows the life story of Oedipus as it is told by Sophocles in “King Oedipus”. The drama shows, that Oedipus´ fate is nearly inescapably determined by marks, that early traumatic incest with his mother has left on his character. Thus the Sophoclean play as a whole is the continuous description of a merciless duel between Oedipus and his mother, who either appears in a preoedipal form as the Sphinx or as an oedipal figure. The method of interpretation here applied apparently is based on psychoanalysis. The article supports the opinion, that modern psychological- psychiatric understanding of the parent – child – incest is hardly ahead of the view taken by Sophocles in ancient times. [Article in German] Picture by Carole Raddato from FRANKFURT, Germany.


Commercial Agents (Council Directive) Regulations 1993: English and Scottish commercial courts interpretations of the law reflect reality

Charles Mak

Affiliation: Faculty of Law, The Chinese University of Hong Kong

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.2.289

Languages: English

This article seeks to analyse whether the ways Commercial Agents (Council Directive) Regulations 1993 have been interpreted prove that English and Scottish commercial courts understand commercial law as a mirror to the changing nature of commercial practices. This article is divided into two parts. The first part will examine those main confusions that arise from the Regulation. Furthermore, the article will discuss whether the English and Scottish commercial courts have clarified their scope of application and ensure their efficiency in protecting commercial agents by their interpretation of the regulations.


Derivation of a Shortened Research Instrument for Measuring Alcohol and Other Drug (AOD) Attitudes in a Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) Training Program

Arvind Venkat, Arnie Aldridge, Shannon Kearney, John Radack et al.

Affiliation: Program Evaluation and Research Unit, School of Pharmacy, University of Pittsburgh

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.2.290

Languages: English

The Alcohol and Alcohol Problems Perception Questionnaire (AAPPQ) is a survey for evaluating the attitudes of clinicians towards patients with alcohol use disorders. A locally-developed research instrument for a Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) training program, the Survey of Attitudes and Perceptions, incorporates the AAPPQ to measure changes in the attitudes of healthcare professionals pre- and post-training. To ease the burden of the research instrument, a derivation study was undertaken using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to derive fewer statements from each factor of the AAPPQ. The original 30-statement AAPPQ was reduced to 13 statements, representing the six factors of the AAPPQ and showing qualities of coherence, non-redundancy, and reliability. The 13 corresponding Drug and Drug Problems Perceptions Questionnaire were also included in the revised SAP instrument.


Derivation of a Shortened Research Instrument for Measuring Alcohol and Other Drug (AOD) Attitudes in a Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) Training Program

Arvind Venkat, Arnie Aldridge, Shannon Kearney, John Radack et al.

Affiliation: University of Pittsburgh, School of Pharmacy, Program Evaluation and Research Unit

Languages: English

The Alcohol and Alcohol Problems Perception Questionnaire (AAPPQ) is a survey for evaluating the attitudes of clinicians towards patients with alcohol use disorders. A locally-developed research instrument for a Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) training program, the Survey of Attitudes and Perceptions, incorporates the AAPPQ to measure changes in the attitudes of healthcare professionals pre- and post-training. To ease the burden of the research instrument, a derivation study was undertaken using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to derive fewer statements from each factor of the AAPPQ. The original 30-statement AAPPQ was reduced to 13 statements, representing the six factors of the AAPPQ and showing qualities of coherence, non-redundancy, and reliability. The 13 corresponding Drug and Drug Problems Perceptions Questionnaire were also included in the revised SAP instrument.


The Growth of Pharmaceutical Business in Borno State, Nigeria, 1976-1999

Usman Al-amin, Halima Baba Shehu , Fati Mohammed Ngaran

Affiliation: Department of History, University of Maiduguri Borno State, Nigeria

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.2.286

Languages: English

Pharmaceuticals, especially drug distribution, are so priceless that no nation can survive without them. This business has virtually touched the lives of people in so many ways. This work focuses on pharmaceutical business in Maiduguri, Borno State of Nigeria from 1976 to 1999. Primary and secondary sources generated from interviews and documentary data from libraries and other centers formed the bedrock of the data used herein. The primary sources included: interviews with present pharmaceutical operators, random sample interviews with wholesalers, retailers, peddlers, pharmacists, and individuals of the Borno State Ministry of Health, NAFDAC officials as well as some of the oldest operators of pharmaceutical stores in Borno State.


THE GROWITH OF PHARMACEUTICAL BUSINESS IN BORNO STATE, NIGERIA, 1976-1999

Usman Al-amin, Usman Al-amin

Affiliation: Department of History, University of Maiduguri Borno State, Nigeria

Languages: English

ABSTRACT Pharmaceuticals, especially drug distribution, are priceless that no nation can survive without them. The business has virtually touched the lives of people in so many ways. This work focuses on pharmaceutical business in Maiduguri, Borno State of Nigeria from 1976 to 1999. Primary and secondary sources generated from interviews and documentary data from libraries and other centers formed the bedrock of the data used in producing the paper. The primary sources included: interviews with present pharmaceutical operators, random sample interviews with wholesalers, retailers, peddlers, pharmacists and individuals of the Borno State Ministry of Health, NAFDAC officials as well as some of the oldest operators of pharmaceutical stores in Borno State.


The Role of Community-Based Agricultural and Rural Development Programme in Poverty Reduction in Bursari Local Government Area of Yobe State, Nigeria: 2005-2009

Usman Al-amin, Halima Baba Shehu , Fati Mohammed Ngaran

Affiliation: Department of History, University of Maiduguri Borno State, Nigeria

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.2.285

Languages: English

The Community Base Agricultural and Rural Development Programme (CBARDP) in conjunction with International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD subsequently referred as CBARDP/IFAD) is an important poverty reduction programme. The programme contributed to the improvement of the lives of the people, particularly the vulnerable in poor rural participating areas, which also helped in the prevention of degradation of the environment. This study examines the role of the programme in poverty reduction in the participating communities of Guba, Kaliyari, and Kurnawa in Bursari Local Government Area of Yobe State, Nigeria from 2005–2009. In doing so, examination of relevant materials and conduction of interviews with some of the beneficiaries of the scheme and staff of the programme formed the sources of data used in analysing the impact of the programme.


Individuality and integrity of humans in the modern age: Considerations of a natural scientist

Werner Schempp

Affiliation: Institute of Human Genetics, Albert-Ludwigs University, Freiburg, Germany

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.2.284

Languages: German

We owe the unexpected and rapid progress in medical research and therapeutic methods to the far-reaching scientific knowledge of the past decades. Nowadays, the Internet makes information available worldwide within seconds, and, through social media, creates a "reality" that can hardly be verified. On the one hand, this development makes the modern people in the high-tech regions of our world striving, more than ever, for individuality and self-realization. On the other hand, these technical possibilities, such as interventions in reproductive medicine, organ transplantation, advances in cloning techniques, or the development of artificial intelligence, favor a "de-individualization" of the human being. Art can be a mediator for overcoming this completely polar development in today's science. [Article in German] Acknowledgments: I thank Drs. Birgitta Gläser, Ingvo Broich, Michael Leipoldt, and Michael Wolf for critically reading and suggesting improvements to this article.


Safeguarding Academic Freedom in the 'Masterplan Medical Studies 2020' (Sicherung der Lehrfreiheit im „Masterplan Medizinstudium 2020“)

Frank Wertheimer

Affiliation: Krauss Law, Lahr, Germany

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.2.283

Languages: German

Recently, the German government has planned to reform the medical school education system. Under the heading “masterplan medical education 2020” a commission composed of science and health ministers has been developing proposals for practical relevance and reinforcing the proportion of general medicine. Specifically, it is planned to introduce a mandatory rotation of general medicine in the practical year of medical school, which will have to be performed by a general practitioner accredited by the public health insurance. To this end, general practitioners are thought to participate in teaching medical students during the practical year on a voluntary basis. Furthermore, general medicine is supposed to become a mandatory part of the final oral and practical state exam which takes place after the practical year.


THE ROLE OF COMMUNITY-BASED AGRICULTURAL AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME IN POVERTY REDUCTION IN BURSARI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF YOBE STATE, NIGERIA: 2005-2009

Usman Al-amin, Usman Al-amin, Usman Al-amin

Affiliation: Department of History, University of Maiduguri Borno State, Nigeria

Languages: English

The Community Base Agricultural and Rural Development Programme (CBARDP) in conjunction with International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD subsequently referred as CBARDP/IFAD) is an important poverty reduction Programme. The Programme contributed to improvement of the lives of the people, particularly the vulnerable in poor rural participating areas, which also helped in the prevention of degradation of the environment. This study examine the role of the Programme in poverty reduction in the participating communities of Guba, Kaliyari, and Kurnawa in Bursari Local Government Area of Yobe State, Nigeria from 2005–2009. In doing so, examination of relevant materials and conduction of interviews with some of the beneficiaries of the scheme and staff of the Programme formed the sources of data used in analysing the impact of the programme.