About the Journal of Science, Humanities and Arts -JOSHA-

The JOSHA Journal is an innovative, multidisciplinary, multilingual, open-access, non-profit electronic journal based in Freiburg in Breisgau, Germany, that publishes all types of publications and contributions, including textbooks, audios and videos in all fields of science, humanities, and arts.

Submitted articles and contributions undergo editorial review. In order to avoid "Semmelweis Effects", biased judgements, or undue delays of publication, JOSHA abstains from peer-reviews.


JOSHA is listed in Research Gate and currently indexed in Microsoft Academic, WorldCat – OCLC, Crossref, ROAD (Directory of Open Access Scholarly Resources), e-journal.org, and Scilit.


You can also follow JOSHA on Facebook, Instagram, YouTube and LinkedIn.


“Knowledge that is not communicated is wasted knowledge”


Manuscripts submitted for JOSHA will undergo review by JOSHA's Editorial Board and rating. There is no "peer-review". Upon acceptance, your paper will receive a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) and appear in the Journal. The authors alone are responsible for the contents of their publication.


All JOSHA articles are made publicly accessible via the Internet without any restrictions or payment by the reader.


PDF versions are freely available for download and provide an easy way for users to print copies themselves.

As part of our copyright and license agreement, JOSHA articles may be reproduced without formal permission or payment of permission fees. As a courtesy, however, we suggest a donation in support of JOSHA’s open access publications as well as a note quoting the JOSHA publication

Reproduction of pictures, figures or tables from any article is permitted free of charge and without formal written permission from JOSHA or the author, provided that the figure or table is original and that proper attribution of authorship and the correct citation details are given as acknowledgment.


The publication of articles in JOSHA is currently free of charge. The management of the journal and the cost of processing the articles are therefore borne by the non-profit International Academy of Sciences, Humanities and Arts (IASHA) e.V., the BioThera-Roland Mertelsmann Institut GmbH, and by voluntary donations.


“Ownership belongs to the scientists and artists.”


The copyright of the submitted papers will remain with the authors. Papers in JOSHA may be published elsewhere in the original or revised version. JOSHA will also accept important articles that have been previously published elsewhere. Any issue of the copyright is the responsibility of the authors.

Authors grant JOSHA a license to publish the article. Authors also grant any third party the right to use the article freely as long as its integrity is maintained and its original authors, citation details and publisher are identified. Any third party may not use the material for commercial purposes.

The terms and conditions of publishing articles in JOSHA are outlined in detail under Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0.


Open access content of JOSHA is freely available online. Through licensing their work under CC BY-NC, authors grant readers the right to unrestricted dissemination and re-use of the work.


This liberal licensing will facilitate the transfer and growth of scientific knowledge as well as artistic creativity. The Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association (OASPA) recommends the use of CC BY for the open access publication of research literature, and many research funders worldwide (e.g. the European Commission’s Horizon 2020 framework program, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Max Planck Institutes, Wellcome Trust, Australian Governments and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation) endorse or mandate that research they have supported be published under CC BY. 

Where an author is prevented from being the copyright holder (for instance in the case of employees of the US government, Commonwealth governments or other governments), minor variations may be required. In such cases the copyright and license statement in individual articles should be adjusted. Authors requiring a variation of this type should inform JOSHA during or immediately after submission of their article.


“Better together - together better":  Join IASHA e.V. by Membership


The International Academy of Science, Humanities and Arts (IASHA) e.V is a non-profit association and a major sponsor of the journal JOSHA. IASHA e.V. offers membership to individuals and institutions (e.g. universities, academic departments, labs, hospitals, companies and societies) to support scientists and artists who publish in JOSHA.

IASHA e.V. and the BioThera-Roland Mertelsmann Institut GmbH are interested to keep publication in JOSHA free of any author charge as long as possible.

Benefits for members of IASHA e.V. of include :

●      The sustained preservation of a money-saving option to publish under liberal license conditions

●      An increased exposure for yourself and your organization by showcase sections in the journal

●      A yearly update on the financial situation of IASHA e.V.

●      Personal invitations to academic and artistic events supported by IASHA e.V. and the BioThera-Roland Mertelsmann Foundation

●      Tax deductibility of donations and membership fees


To become a member or to find out more, please contact the IASHA e.V. homepage under https://iasha.org/

If you are a researcher who would like your institution, company or society to become a member, please contact IASHA e.V.


Prof. em. Dr. Drs. h.c. Roland Mertelsmann, roland.mertelsmann@josha-archive.org


Roland is founder and Editor-in-Chief of JOSHA .


He is a hematologist, oncologist and professor at the University Medical Center, Department of Oncology and Hematology in Freiburg, Germany. Amongst others, Roland is known for his scientific work in the fields of hematology, oncology, and stem cell transplantation. He started his career as a medical student at the Universities of Göttingen and Hamburg, Germany and the King’s College School of Medicine London, UK. After his graduation at the University of Hamburg, he mainly contributed to the isolation of the blood stimulating growth factor G-SCF during a fellowship in Hematology and Clinical Oncology at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer New York, NY, USA. In 1985, he became professor and head of the Department for Hematology and Oncology at the University of Mainz, Germany, and since 1989 at the University of Freiburg, Germany. 

Language skills: English, German.


Prof. Dr. Gerhard G. Steinmann, gerhard.g.steinmann@t-online.de


Gerd is co-founder and Co-Editor-in-Chief of JOSHA.


He is also Chair of the International Academy of Science, Humanities, and Arts (IASHA e.V.), a non-profit association. He is a pathologist, psychologist, and professor at the Medical Faculty, University of Kiel, Germany. He graduated at the University of Hamburg, Germany. At the Department of Pathology at the University of Kiel and at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA, he focused his research on the aging of the immune system. In 1985, he joined Boehringer Ingelheim, Germany and held management positions in Research and Development, International Project Management, Pharmacovigilance, and Drug Clinical Research in the Oncology, Immunology, and Virology therapeutic areas. 

Language skills: English, German.


Dr. Felicitas Holzer, felicitasholzer@gmx.de


Felicitas is co-founder of JOSHA. She studied economics and philosophy in Munich, Germany and graduated in Biomedical Sciences after joining a bi-national Program (International Master in Biomedical Sciences) between Freiburg, Germany and Buenos Aires, Argentina. She focused in a Master Program in Philosophy of Science at the University of Cambridge, UK, on literature and topics in bioethics. She obtained her PhD in Philosophy from Sorbonne University, France, and is currently affiliated with the Bioethics Program and WHO Collaborating Center at FLACSO Argentina as well as with the US-based non-governmental organization Incentives for Global Health. 

Language skills: English, German, Spanish, French.


Dr. Sascha Lange, sascha.lange@psiori.com


Sascha is co-founder of JOSHA. He is also founder and CEO of two software companies that develop and distribute innovative technologies for the mobile internet and collect and analyze data. After graduating at the University of Osnabrück, Germany, he worked several years as a scientific assistant and obtained his Ph.D. from the University of Freiburg. Germany. His thesis focused on deep reinforcement based on visual perception. His scientific interest lies in the field of machine learning regarding both, research, and implementation. After successfully attending several times the RoboCup (Robot Soccer) and developing Massively Multiplayer Online Games, he currently focuses on the development of analyzing tools for big data. 

Language skills: English, German.



Dr. Stephan Seiler, stephan.seiler@outlook.com


Stephan is co-founder of JOSHA. After working as a music dealer in Basel and Zürich, Switzerland, Stephan studied classical archaeology, archaeology of the Roman provinces, and ancient history at the University of Freiburg, Germany. For two years, he worked at the Rheinisches Landesmuseum in Trier, Germany. He obtained his Ph.D. with a thesis focused on Roman villa settlements in the region of Trier, Germany. Stephan’s scientific interests are classics, history of art and music. He works as a event manager and communication referent.

Language skills: English, German and French.



Editorial Board:

Dr. Evguenia Alechine, admin@josha-archive.org


Evguenia graduated in Biochemistry at the University of Buenos Aires, Argentina. She joined the International Master Program in Biomedical Sciences (IMBS) and obtained her M.Sc. from the University of Buenos Aires. Afterwards, continuing the topic of her Master Thesis, she obtained her Ph.D. in Biochemistry at the University of Buenos Aires. She is currently working in scientific communication as scientific editor.

Language skills: English, Spanish.


Soma Almasi M.Sc., sralmasi@gmail.com


Soma studied Psychology at Nottingham University, Psychotherapy and Counseling Psychology at Regents College, London, and obtained an M.Sc. in psychology research methods at University College London. Her research focused on Neurophenomenology and Neurofeedback. She currently continues her research interests in the context of a Ph.D. program.

Language Skills: English, Arabic, Persian, Kurdish.

Jona Boeddinghaus, jona@adeia.de


Jona earned degrees in Computer Science, Cognitive Science and Philosophy and gained experience at the Fraunhofer Institute during his studies. Jona is an expert in business software development. After several years in industry he founded his own venture craut interactive. Jona is the creator and patent-owner of Playoke, the world’s first Kinect-based interactive group fitness solution.

Language skills: English, German.

Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Christoph Borner, christoph.borner@uniklinik-freiburg.de


Christoph graduated from Biology and obtained his PhD in Biochemistry/Cancer Biology at the University of Basel, Switzerland. He was a postdoctoral student at the Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA. He is currently full professor in Medical Cell Research at Freiburg University,Germany, the director of the Spemann Graduate School of Biology and Medicine, and the director of the International Master Program in Biomedical Sciences of the Universities of Buenos Aires, Argentina and Freiburg, Germany.

Language skills: English, German.


Dr. Marie Brendle, marie_brendle@hotmail.fr


Marie graduated in Medicine in 2015 and obtained her MD degree from Freiburg University in 2017. She then obtained her Bachelor’s degree in Music and Musicology in 2019 at Lyon 2 University, France, and currently studies piano and singing at the Ecole Nationale de Musique in Villeurbanne, France. She also holds the 1. Dan in judo and practices salsa and mountain sports.

Language Skills: French, German, English, Spanish

Professor Dr. Eugen Carasevici, eugen.carasevici@gmail.com


He is a Senior Research Consultant at TRANSCEND (Center of Fundamental Research and Experimental Development in Translational Medicine), Regional Institute of Oncology in Iasi, Romania. He graduated the Faculty of Medicine in 1969 at Gr.T. Popa University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Iasi. After two years of internship, he worked in the oncology chemotherapy department of Radiology-Oncology Clinic at the University Hospital from 1971 to 2013. He was attracted to the field of tumor immunology and set up laboratories in this research profile, and eventually the TRANSCEND Research Center.  Between 1992 and 2014 he was a Professor for Immunology and Coordinator for PhD students in Immunology-Immunopathology at Gr.T.Popa University of Medicine and Pharmacy.

Language Skills: Romanian, French, English, German.



Dr. Dragoş Carasevici, d_carasevici@yahoo.com


Dragoş is Lecturer at the German Studies Department of the „Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University from Iaşi, Romania, and PhD of the same university and of Université de Genève, Switzerland, with a thesis on Friedrich Dürrenmatt’s adaptations and stagings (2011). He works in the field of German and Swiss Studies as well as in the field of literary translations and Theatre Studies. He is also one of the editors of “Acta Iassyensia Comparationis”, a Romania-based international journal for Comparative Literature.

Language Skills: German, English, French, Romanian.



Dr. Laura Carasevici, lauraciochina@yahoo.com


Laura has a PhD in Psychology (University of Porto, Portugal) and a PhD in Philology („Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University from Iaşi, Romania). She teaches Psychology at the Faculty of Psychology and Education Sciences of „Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University from Iaşi and she is also a literary translator.

Language Skills: English, Portuguese, Spanish, Romanian.


PD Dr. Rainer Claus, rainer.claus@uk-augsburg.de


Rainer is currently a "Privatdozent" of Medicine and attending physician at the Department of Medicine I (Oncology, Hematology, Stem cell transplantation) at Freiburg University Medical Center, Germany. He is an internationally recognized expert in the field of epigenetic mechanisms in leukemogenesis.

Language skills: English, German.


Dr. Frank Jäkel, jaekel@psychologie.tu-darmstadt.de


Frank is a professor for Models of Higher Cognition at TU Darmstadt. He has worked as a data scientist in industry and before that he was a professor for Cognitive Modeling at the University of Osnabrück. Within Cognitive Science and Artificial Intelligence his main interests are Concept Learning and Problem Solving.

Language skills: English, German.


Dr.Med. Rebeka Javorniczky, javorebeka@gmail.com


Rebeka is an assistant physician from Hungary at the Faculty of Medicine - University of Freiburg. She graduated 2015 at the Semmelweis University of Budapest and wrote her thesis about systemic amyloidosis, a rare hematological disease. After moving to Germany she continued this project beyond her clinical work and carried on studying patients with amyloidosis in the Department of Hematology and Oncology in Freiburg.

Language Skills: English, German, Hungarian.

Dr. Benjamin Koziner, bkoziner@cellprep.com


Benjamin is a physician from Argentina. He is an internationally recognized expert in Haematology and Oncology, with a focus on leukemias and lymphomas, with previous positions at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA, as well various leading positions in the US and Argentina. He is currently an attending Physician at Alaska Native Medical Center Oncology Clinic, Anchorage, Alaska, USA.

Language skills: English, Spanish.


Yi-Hsuan Lo M.Sc,  yihsuanlo1987@gmail.com


Yi-Hsuan Lo has a bachelor in Food Science and Biotechnology, a master degree in Biochemical Science and Technology, and has worked in important academic and research institutes related to translational cancer research in Taiwan.

Language Skills: English, Taiwanese, Chinese, Mandarin.


Dr. Ignacio Mastroleo, ignaciomastro@gmail.com


Ignacio works on research ethics, medical ethics and theories of justice. His main lines of inquiry are ethics of innovative medical practice, post-trial responsibilities and research integrity (see Google scholar and ORCID profiles). He is a researcher from National Scientific Research Council of Argentina (CONICET) and Chief of Lecturers in Ethics at the Department of Philosophy, University of Buenos Aires (UBA). 

He won The Manuel Velasco Suarez Award for Excellence in Bioethics (2014) awarded by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO-WHO).  Since 2018, He is the coordinator of the Bioethics Module of the International Master/PhD Program in Biomedical Sciences (IMBS University of Freiburg, Germany and UBA) and the Director of the BioThera Research Institute for Philosophy of Translational Medicine at the Program of Bioethics, FLACSO Argentina, Collaborating Bioethics Center of PAHO-WHO. Since 2020, he is a member of the board of directors of the International Association of Bioethics (IAB).

Language skills: English, Spanish. 

Wolfgang Newerla wolfgangnewerla@gmx.de


His great musical curiosity gave the baritone an early reputation as a singer with the most interesting repertoire of his field. After engagements in Ulm and Freiburg, he has been a guest at many important national and international opera houses such as the Theater an der Wien, the Vienna Volksoper, the Teatro Real in Madrid, the Opéra National de Lyon, the Staatsoper Berlin, the Deutsche Oper am Rhine, Staatsoper Hannover and festivals such as the Ruhrtriennale and the Schwetzingen Festival since1999.

In June 2014 he debuted with great success at the Staatsoper Munich in a new production of Zimmermann's soldier (Kirill Petrenko/ Director: Andreas Kriegenburg). Recently he was seen in Calixto Bieitos production of Janáček AUS EINEM TOTENHAUS at the Staatstheater in Nuremberg. With Zimmermann's soldiers, he will make his debut at the Teatro Real in Madrid in the spring of 2018.

Besides the opera, Wolfgang Newerla focuses on the concert sector. As a concert performer, he is very popular all over Europe - mainly in Spain, as well as in China, the USA and Russia.

Language skills: German, English, French, Spanish


Dr. Yaneth Ortiz, yaneth.ortiz@gmail.com


Yaneth studied microbiology and obtained her PhD in Basic Biomedical Sciences with an emphasis in immunology from Universidad de Antioquia in Medellin Colombia, her thesis was done in the transplant immunology section of the Grupo de Imunologia Celular e Inmunogenetica. During her doctoral studies, she spent one semester at University of Chicago, USA as a research volunteer. After graduation, she worked for two years as a postdoc at UniversitätsSpital Zürich in Switzerland in the Neuroimmunology and MS research section of the Neurology department. Her main research focus has been T cell immunology

Language skills: English, Spanish.

Zazie-Charlotte Pfeiffer, z.ch.pfeiffer@gmail.com


Zazie-Charlotte is a medicine student at the Albert-Ludwigs-University in Freiburg im Breisgau and an Assistant Editor of JOSHA as well as an Arts section Editor. She is currently working on her doctoral dissertation concerning cancer research and antigen interaction with a special focus on the role of B-cells in cancer regression and progression. In addition to that, she is working in the field of literature as the author of short stories in English and German.

Language skills: English, German, French.


Dr. Chiara Salabè, MD, MPhil, MSc, chiara.salabe@gmail.com


Chiara, an Italian-German national, is a doctor and currently doing her residency in internal medicine in Zürich, Switzerland, after she finalised her doctoral dissertation on AB0 incompatible living donor kidney transplantation at the Freiburg Transplantation Centre. Before starting a new career in medicine she had been a professional in the field of international development and last worked for the World Bank in Washington DC. She graduated from the University of Rome La Sapienza with honours degree in political science and then specialised in development policies and economics at the University of London with a Master of Science from SOAS and a Master of Philosophy from UCL. After a successful career she left the World Bank to follow what had been her long time dream to become a doctor and graduated from the University of Freiburg Medical School.

Languages skills: Italian, German, English and French.



Dr. Med. Valeria Shlyakhto, valeria.shlyakhto@uniklinik-freiburg.de


Valeria obtained her degree in Human medicine from the First Pavlov Medical University in Saint Petersburg, Russia, she obtained her Promotion as Dr.med Haematology with Magna cum laude from the Ruprecht-Karls-Universität in Heidelberg and today she is a physician at Universitätsklinikum Freiburg, Department of Haematology and Oncology and Stem Cell Transplantation

Language Skills: English, German, Russian, Greek.


Dr. Jerry O. Stern, josternmd@gmail.com


Jerry received his BS (with honors) from The City College of New York, NY, USA where he majored in Biology and Chemistry.  He was awarded an M.D. degree from the Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York, NY, USA where his thesis research included identifying the unique structure function relationship of the iron porphyrin ligands of cytochromes P-450.  Jerry completed is Internship and Residency in Internal Medicine followed by a fellowship in Gastroenterology and Hepatology at Bellevue Hospital and New York University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA.  He served as an Attending Physician at Bellevue Hospital-NYU Medical Center for almost 20 years where he cared for patients, both private and clinic, and taught medical students and physicians in training. During this period he also served as an investigator and consultant to numerous technology and pharmaceutical companies in the areas of HIV, viral hepatitis, human herpes virus and human papilloma virus infections. Jerry recently retired from Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Ridgefield, CT, USA where he was Vice President and Global Therapeutic Area Head Medicine for Virology and Infectious Diseases. His pharmaceutical expertise includes the design of early and late stage clinical trials, pharmacovigilance, clinical development strategy and regulatory science.


Anusha Venkatraman, M.Sc. anusha.venkatraman.av@gmail.com


Anusha studied Microbiology in Chennai, India and graduated from a Master program Biomedical Sciences (International Masters in Biomedical Sciences - a binational program of Freiburg, Germany and Buenos Aires, Argentina). She worked in the research group of Prof. Dr. Christoph Borner during her Master thesis on the role of deregulated autophagy and apoptosis in polycystic kidney disease. Apart from her role as Assistant Editor of JOSHA, she also aspires to join a PhD program in Freiburg in the field of molecular medicine.

Language skills: English, German, Hindi, Tamil.


Editorial Office:


Bernardin Doerr, mail@doerr-finanzen.de


Bernardin studied to be a Chemist at the University of Freiburg. However, he chose to work as a freelance Financial Advisor in the private client business in Freiburg. In 2002, he started his own company in Financial consulting.

Language skills: English, German.


Neher Aseem Parimoo, neheraseemparimoo@gmail.com


Meet Neher, a geneticist from India with a passion for communication, design, and the arts. With 2 years of professional experience in academia and healthcare, she brings a unique blend of scientific expertise and creative flair to her work. Neher recently earned her Master's degree in Biomedical Science from the University of Buenos Aires and the University of Freiburg, making her well-equipped to navigate the interdisciplinary environment of JOSHA, where she currently serves as an editor.

As an editor, Neher is responsible for acquiring high-quality content and reviewing and editing literature, working closely with the JOSHA team to achieve their goals. She is also building and managing JOSHA's professional network and social media presence, helping to shape the future direction of the publication. With her diverse interests and skills, Neher is always looking for new challenges and opportunities to grow."

Language Skills: English, Spanish, Hindi, Gujarati, and Kashmiri



Silke Masullo, admin@josha-archive.org


Silke studied to be an “International Management Assistant” at the Foley Business School in Freiburg. 

She pursued her professional career as an aviation safety instructor with Swiss International Airlines. While she and her family decided to spend nine years in Michigan, she worked for the University of Michigan as Training Coordinator - Diversity, Equity and Inclusion in the Department of Organizational Learning.

Language skills: German, English.


In Memoriam

Prof. em. Dr. Hans-Günter Hager


Günter was Editor of the section "Philosophy, Ethics, and Law". He was a specialist in Civil Law, Commercial Law, Comparative Law, and Private International Law from the University of Freiburg, Germany. He has been professor at the Universities of Marburg, Jena, and Freiburg, and visiting professor at Houston, TX, USA, Strasbourg, France, Poitiers, France and Nanjing, China Universities. He was also Professor emeritus and Director emeritus of the Institute for Foreign and International Private Law. He passed away on February 19th, 2017.


Ass. Prof. Dr. Bujar Bajçinovci, bujar.bajcinovci@uni-pr.edu


Bujar had a Dr.Sc. degree in Technical Sciences in the field of Architecture and Urbanism at the University of Sarajevo, and he was a Professor of Architectural Design at the University of Prishtina, Kosovo. His research focused on Architectural Design, Urban Design, Sustainable Design, and Environmental Protection. He passed away on September, 12th, 2020.